Malignant Diseases

Acute And Chronic Leukemias

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is usually applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes and HIV/AIDS.

In medicine, the opposite of chronic is acute. A chronic course is further distinguished from a recurrent course; recurrent diseases relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between.

The non-communicable diseases are also usually lasting medical conditions but are separated by their non-infectious causes. In contrast, some chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, are caused by transmissible infections.

 

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin's lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease, is a type of lymphoma, which is a cancer originating from white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with the choice of treatment depending on the age and sex of the patient and the stage, bulk, and histological subtype of the disease.

The disease occurrence shows two peaks: the first in young adulthood (age 15–35) and the second in those over 55 years old.

 

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are diverse group of blood cancers that include any kind of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas. Types of NHL vary significantly in their severity, from slow growing to very aggressive.

Lymphomas are types of cancer derived from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Lymphomas are treated by combinations ofchemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (CD20), immunotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

 

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

The myelodysplastic syndromes (also known as MDS or myelodysplasia) are hematological (blood-related) medical conditions with ineffective production (or dysplasia) of the myeloid class of blood cells.

Patients with MDS can develop severe anemia and require blood transfusions. In some cases, the disease worsens and the patient develops cytopenias (low blood counts) caused by progressive bone marrow failure.

 

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs), are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced. They are related to, and may evolve into, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, although the myeloproliferative diseases on the whole have a much better prognosis than these conditions.

 

Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma also known as plasma cell myeloma, myelomatosis, or Kahler's disease(after Otto Kahler), is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, collections of abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow, where they interfere with the production of normal blood cells. Most cases of multiple myeloma also feature the production of a paraprotein—an abnormal antibody which can causekidney problems. Bone lesions and hypercalcemia (high blood calcium levels) are also often encountered.

 

Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis, also known as osteomyelofibrosis, is a rare bone marrow cancer. It is currently classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, in which the proliferation of an abnormal clone of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow and other sites results in fibrosis, or the replacement of the marrow with collagenous connective tissue fibers. The term myelofibrosis alone usually refers to primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis [cIMF]), the idiopathic form of the disease, in contrast with myelofibrosis secondary to polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythaemia. Myelofibrosis is a form of myeloid metaplasia, and often the two terms are used synonymously. Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) also overlap on the same spectrum.