Refractive Errors

Astigmatism is a common eye condition and often occurs in association with other refractive problems, such as myopia and hyperopia. Astigmatism occurs when the surface of the eye is shaped more like a football than a basketball.

Hyperopia or farsightedness, is a common eye condition. Hyperopia occurs when the light that enters the eye focuses behind the retina. In many cases, the eyeball is too short and so the focal point of light falls behind the retina.

Myopia or nearsightedness, is also a very common eye condition. People with myopia find it difficult to see people and objects at a distance. Myopia occurs when the images that enter the eye focus in front of the retina. In many cases, the eyeball is too long and so the focal point of light falls in front of the retina.

Presbyopia is a universal condition of human aging. All individuals eventually become symptomatic with presbyopia, usually between the ages of 38 and 42.


Computer Vision Syndrome

Computer Vision Syndrome is the name given to eye problems caused by prolonged computer use.

The symptoms of CVS include:

  • • Eye irritation (Dry eyes, itchy eyes, red eyes)
  • • Blurred vision
  • • Headaches
  • • Backaches
  • • Neck aches
  • • Muscle fatigue


  • • Blepharitis
  • • Cornea & External Diseases

Eye Movement Disorders

  • • Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)
  • • Strabismus

Oculofacial and Orbital Surgery

  • • Eyelid Tumors
  • • Orbital Tumors
  • • Ptosis
  • • Thyroid Eye Disease (Graves' Disease)
  • • Oculofacial and Orbital Surgery at Penn

Retina Disorders

  • • Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
  • • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • • Retinal Detachment
  • • Retinitis Pigmentosa/Retinal Degenerations
  • • Retina & Vitreous Service at Penn


  • • Conjunctivitis
  • • Dry Eyes
  • • Contact Lens Services
  • • Eye Emergencies
  • • Cataracts
  • • Glaucoma
  • • Neuro-Ophthalmology
  • • Ocular Genetics